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A revolution in lighting

LEDs, or Light Emitting Diodes, represent a breakthrough in lighting technology. These semiconductor light sources have gained enormous popularity thanks to their energy efficiency, long lifetime and wide range of applications.

Design and principle of operation

At the heart of an LED is a semiconductor junction, formed by the junction of n-type and p-type semiconductors. When an electric current flows through the LED in the direction of conduction, photons are emitted at the semiconductor junction - this is how light is generated. A key element in the LED circuit is a resistor, which limits the increase in current when the threshold voltage is exceeded, ensuring stability and safety of operation.

Colours of light emitted by LEDs

The variety of light colours that LEDs offer is due to the use of different dopants in the semiconductor material. Depending on their chemical composition, LEDs can emit light of a specific wavelength, from ultraviolet through the visible colour spectrum to infrared. However, direct production of white light by a single LED is impossible. Various techniques are used to achieve the white light effect:

  • RGB system:Mixing the light emitted by three LEDs - red, green and blue - to produce a full range of colours, including white light.
  • Complementary colour system:Combination of blue LED light with a yellow-red luminophore, resulting in the impression of white light.
  • UV conversion system:The use of a luminophore that converts the UV radiation emitted by the LED into visible light of various colours, including white light.

The future of lighting

LEDs are not only revolutionising the lighting market, they are also opening up new possibilities in space design, display technology and in medicine and industry. Thanks to their small size, shock resistance, energy efficiency and the ability to adjust the colour and intensity of light, LEDs are finding applications in almost every area of life.

Innovations in semiconductor materials and LED manufacturing technology are constantly expanding the boundaries of their possibilities. From smart home lighting to dynamic urban lighting systems to advanced phototherapy and agricultural applications, LEDs have revolutionised the way we use light.

LED technology continues to evolve, providing solutions that are not only greener and more cost-effective, but also tailored to the needs and expectations of the modern user. Their versatility and potential for further development make the future of lighting seem incredibly bright - all thanks to the small but powerful LED.